Deoxyribonucleic Acid, which is well known as DNA, is a fatherhood test. This test is done to identify the relationship between two people if find out if they have any genetic relations. In more simple words, you can understand like this that through this test it is confirmed if a man is true father of any child or not. DNA test is also knows as DNA testing or paternity test. In 1985, Sir Alec Jeffreys developed this test at the University of Leicester. You know every human being consist of DNA which as a hereditary blueprint, it is a molecule just like a long thread having genetic code. Through this code it is found out whose individual characteristic matches to another person especially father or his children.
You know if you get your DNA test done, you will come know about unique mixture of DNA of your father and you will also be surprised to know that nobody in the world will have this genetic code except your twin brother or sister.
DNA Testing Process
Nowadays, there are hundreds of labs and several ways of DNA testing, but one common process which is used for various purposes is called PCR (Polyermase Chain Reaction), which is conducted in paternity and forensic laboratories. In this process, DNA is collected from the sample cells to establish the sequence of concentration on the DNA strand using primers. After the sequence is established, it is increased to make billions of copies.
During paternity testing, somatic cells are acquired from the probable father through a swab of the inner lining of the mouth. From these cells, DNA is taken out and after being increased it is used to create many copies. With the help of these copies it is tried to find out which copy matches to the children. There are advantages as well as disadvantages of PRC process. It is low-priced as well as less time consuming in comparison to other process like RFLP but is not more vulnerable to contamination and contagion.
In PCR process, the copies of DNA are matched to the people to see if there is any match. This is different from paternity testing, in which population DNA is needed to be used to match efficiently with the sample of the lab to those samples in the population. This is the main reason of not using this process because it costs to high and a lot of time is required in this process.
A restriction enzyme is required, during the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) process, which is acquired by bacteria. Restriction enzymes have the capability of cutting several copies of DNA sequence of interest at different locations. After the sequence is cut, it is divided according to its sizes using GE (gel electrophoresis). After that there is a blotting process, in which a film is used with the gel then stained. There are different bars and each of them represents a different sequence. And at last, DNA probe is fixed with the sequence of interest.