Genetic engineering is done by using techniques like molecular cloning and transformation to modify the structure and nature of genes in an organism. It can bring about a great amount of transformations in the related characteristics of an organism by the manipulation of DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid, which is just like the code given in every cell about the ways it functions. Let’s see some of the pros and cons of Genetic Engineering.
Pros of Genetic Engineering
- Crops are currently being genetically engineered to obtain new strains with better nutritional qualities and yield. Examples are potato, tomato, Soyabean and Rice. The genetically engineered crops have the capacity to grow on the lands, which are not presently suitable to grow on land. The manipulation of genes makes the nutritional value of the crops grow as well as their growth rate. It can also be used to give a better taste to certain crops.
- Crops which have gone though a genetic change of genes in their organisms have capacity to resist pest and those can also survive relatively harsh climatic conditions.Scientists have recently identified plant gene At-DBF2, which can give more endurance to crops like tomato and tobacco to grow on harsh soils and in the rough climatic conditions, if it is planted in the cells of these crops. Biotechnology-the Science of genetic engineering is also helpful towards making less spoilage of food crops. It improves the life-cycles of fruits and vegetables.
- Genetic engineering can be used to develop new substances in food crops such as proteins and nutrients. The genetically modified foods can be utilized towards increasing their medicinal values. It makes available homegrown vaccines.
- Chances of success of Genetic Engineering for human-beings are also high. It can be useful for manipulating certain individual.
- Application of positive Genetic Engineering is useful for increasing positive traits in a human-being like longevity and human capability. Negative Genetic Engineering is helpful for suppressing negative traits in a human-being. Some of the dreaded diseases can be cured through applications by Genetic engineering.
- If genes of extra-ordinary qualities can be found in a particular person; those can be artificially introduced in the genotypes of other humans by Genetic engineering. Genetic engineering can be used to change the DNA of individuals to bring about structural and functional changes in persons.
Cons of Genetic engineering
- Genetically engineered crops have infective genes in them. Those might be harmful for the naturally produced crops. It is also believed by some people that genetically produced crops have less nutritional values but appear better in sizes and tastes. Too much mutation in genes can bring allergies in crops.
- Horizontal gene transfer can increase bacteria or Virus, known as Pathogens which create diseases. There is no doubt that genetic engineering can increase immunity in crops but such resistance in crops can get transferred to harmful pathogens.
- Gene therapy in human-being can bring side-effects. While repairing one gene’s defect, it may lead to another defect in the human-body.
- As one cell in a human body is responsible for many characteristics, isolation of one is very tough.
- Genetic engineering can disturb the diversity in human-beings. Genetically cloned human-beings can imbalance nature and therefore it would hamper individuality.
- Gene therapy in human-beings is extremely expensive, literally impossible for common people to afford.
- Genetic engineering is a wonderful progress in health Science. But it is a straight challenge to nature and the consequences are unpredictable.